車諾比核能電廠事故（烏克蘭語：Чорнобильська катастрофа）是一起發生在蘇聯烏克蘭車諾比核電站的核子反應爐事故。該事故被認為是歷史上最嚴重的核子電廠事故，也是國際核事件分級表（International Nuclear Event Scale）中唯一的第七級事件。因為功率的劇增導致反應爐被破壞，令嚴重的放射性物質被釋放到環境中。在最初發生的蒸氣爆炸導致了兩人死亡，而事故中絕大部分受害者的死因都歸咎於放射線。
The nuclear reactor after the disaster. Reactor 4 (center). Turbine building (lower left). Reactor 3 (center right).
|Date||26 April 1986|
|Time||01:23:45 a.m (Moscow Time UTC+3)|
|Location||Pripyat, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union|
The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine). It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, and it is the only one classified as a level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
The disaster began during a systems test on 26 April 1986 at reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant, which is near the town of Pripyat. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. This event exposed the graphite moderator components of the reactor to air, causing them to ignite. The resulting fire sent a plume of radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including Pripyat. The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe. Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia had to be evacuated, and over 336,000 people were resettled. According to official post-Soviet data, about 60% of the fallout landed inBelarus.
Despite the accident, Ukraine continued to operate the remaining reactors at Chernobyl for many years. The last reactor at the site was closed down in 2000, 14 years after the accident.
The accident raised concerns about the safety of the Soviet nuclear power industry as well as nuclear power in general, slowing its expansion for a number of years and forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive about its procedures.[notes 1]
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident. Fifty deaths, all among the reactor staff and emergency workers, are directly attributed to the accident. Estimates of the total number of deaths attributable to the accident vary enormously.
Chernobyl disaster incident PART 1
Chernobyl disaster incident PART 2
Three Mile Island accident
The Three Mile Island accident was a partial core meltdown in Unit 2 (a pressurized water reactor manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox) of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania near Harrisburg, United States in 1979. The plant was owned and operated by General Public Utilities and the Metropolitan Edison Co. It was the most significant accident in the history of the American commercial nuclear power generating industry, resulting in the release of up to 481 P Bq (13 million curies) of radioactive gases, but less than 740 GBq (20 curies) of the particularly dangerous iodine-131.
The accident began at 4 a.m. on Wednesday, March 28, 1979, with failures in the non-nuclear secondary system, followed by a stuck-open pilot-operated relief valve (PORV) in the primary system, which allowed large amounts of nuclear reactor coolant to escape. The mechanical failures were compounded by the initial failure of plant operators to recognize the situation as a loss of coolant accident due to inadequate training and human factors, such as industrial design errors relating to ambiguous control room indicators in the power plant’s user interface. The scope and complexity of the accident became clear over the course of five days, as employees of Metropolitan Edison (Met Ed, the utility operating the plant), Pennsylvania state officials, and members of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) tried to understand the problem, communicate the situation to the press and local community, decide whether the accident required an emergency evacuation, and ultimately end the crisis.
In the end, the reactor was brought under control, although full details of the accident were not discovered until much later, following extensive investigations by both a presidential commission and the NRC. The Kemeny Commission Report concluded that “there will either be no case of cancer or the number of cases will be so small that it will never be possible to detect them. The same conclusion applies to the other possible health effects.” Several epidemiological studies in the years since the accident have supported the conclusion that radiation releases from the accident had no perceptible effect on cancer incidence in residents near the plant, though these findings have been contested by one team of researchers.
Public reaction to the event was probably influenced by The China Syndrome, a movie which had recently been released and which depicts an accident at a nuclear reactor. Communications from officials during the initial phases of the accident were felt to be confusing. The accident crystallized anti-nuclear safety concerns among activists and the general public, resulted in new regulations for the nuclear industry, and has been cited as a contributor to the decline of new reactor construction that was already underway in the 1970s.
- ^大亞灣核電站核泄漏事故報導失實 事件被誇大中國廣播網
- ^核泄漏恐懼源自不透明 管理安全還要公衆安心
- ^深圳大亞灣核電廠 發生8年來最嚴重核輻射外洩
Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant
|Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant|
Daya Bay nuclear power plant
Location of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant
|Country||People’s Republic of China|
|Locale||Longgang District, Shenzhen,Guangdong|
|Coordinates||22°36′N 114°33′ECoordinates: 22°36′N 114°33′E|
|Commission date||Unit 1: August 31, 1993
Unit 2: February 2, 1994
|Operator(s)||Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company (GNPJVC)|
|Reactors operational||2 x 944 MWe (net)
2 x 984 MWe (gross)
Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant is located on Daya Bay in Longgang District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China, north of Hong Kong. Daya Bay has two 944 MWe PWR nuclear reactors based on the French 900 MWe three cooling loop design, which started commercial operation in 1993 and 1994.
Although located within Guangdong Province, in 1985 the building of Daya Bay nuclear power plant incited controversies and raised objections from prominent politicians in the neighboring Hong Kong, such as Martin Lee and Szeto Wah, legislative councilors, district board members. Over a hundred community groups dealt with the construction topics with the opposition focusing on environmental issues and the rights of Hong Kong residents.
Unit 1 began power operations on August 31, 1993, and Unit 2 began power operations on February 2, 1994. The reactors were designed and built by the French National Company, Framatome, with Chinese participation. Daya Bay is 25% owned by Hong Kong-listed CLP Holdings, which buys about 70% of the plant’s output to supply Hong Kong’s power needs.
On June 16, 2010 Radio Free Asia informed that there was a leak in one of the fuel tubes. Officials denied this information stating that “Daya Bay’s two reactor units are functioning safely and stably. There has been no radioactive leak”. Radio Free Asia quotes a unidentified expert, that radioactive Iodine has been released. It also informs, that the incident was not initially reported to the government, but was kept secret for some time. The New York Times reported differently, quoting one of the shareholders of the plant, China Light & Power (CLP), a Hong Kong-based utility, that the government nuclear safety watchdog in both mainland China and Hong Kong were notified and briefed. CLP said in a statement that the leak was small and fell below international standards requiring reporting as a safety issue. No radioactive monitoring stations in Hong Kong detected any rise in radioactivity. Mainland news outlets also quoted officials explaining the situation, which was under normal operation conditions and fell below international standards for reporting.
The plants are named Guangdong-1 and Guangdong-2 in the IAEA PRIS database.
- ^“Nuclear Power Reactor Details – GUANGDONG 1”. Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- ^“Fuel loading starts at new Chinese reactor”. World Nuclear News. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- ^ ab“China, People’s Republic of: Nuclear Power Reactors”. PRIS database. International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- ^China nuclear firm denies leak, admits tube cracks
- ^ Bradsher, Keith (June 15, 2010). “Chinese Nuclear Plant Experienced a Small Leak Last Month, a Stakeholder Says”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
Accidents and safety
|December 7, 1975||Greifswald, East Germany||Electrician’s error causes fire in the main trough that destroys control lines and five main coolant pumps||US$443|
|February 22, 1977||Jaslovské Bohunice, Czechoslovakia||Severe corrosion of reactor and release of radioactivity into the plant area, necessitating total decommission||US$1,700|
|March 28, 1979||Middletown, Pennsylvania, US||Loss of coolant and partial core meltdown, see Three Mile Island accident and Three Mile Island accident health effects||US$2,400|
|March 9, 1985||Athens, Alabama, US||Instrumentation systems malfunction during startup, which led to suspension of operations at all three Browns Ferry Units – operations restarted in 1991 for unit 2, in 1995 for unit 3, and (after a $1.8 billion recommissioning operation) in 2007 for unit 3||US$1,830|
|April 11, 1986||Plymouth, Massachusetts, US||Recurring equipment problems force emergency shutdown of Boston Edison’s Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant||US$1,001|
|April 26, 1986||Chernobyl, near the town of Pripyat, Ukraine||Steam explosion and meltdown with 4,057 deaths (see Chernobyl disaster) necessitating the evacuation of 300,000 people from the most severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and dispersing radioactive material across Europe (see Chernobyl disaster effects)||US$6,700|
|March 31, 1987||Delta, Pennsylvania, US||Peach Bottom units 2 and 3 shutdown due to cooling malfunctions and unexplained equipment problems||US$400|
|September 2, 1996||Crystal River, Florida, US||Balance-of-plant equipment malfunction forces shutdown and extensive repairs at Crystal River Unit 3||US$384|
|March 10, 2011||Fukishima, Japan||Earthquake followed by tsunami cause Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant to lose ability to cool nuclear reactors. Explosion of secondary containment wall occurs during live TV. 300,000 people from the vicinity were evacuated.||Rising|
How to protect yourself against nuclear radiation
Just in case……
In 1945, at the time of the atomic bombing of Japan, Tatsuichiro Akizuki, M.D. was Director of the Department of Internal Medicine at St. Francis’s Hospital in Nagasaki. Most patients in the hospital, located one mile from the center of the blast, survived the initial effects of the bomb, but soon after came down with symptoms of radiation sickness from the fallout that has been released.
Dr. Akizuki fed his staff and patients a strict diet of brown rice, miso and tamari soy soup, wakame, kombu and other seaweed, Hokkaido pumpkin, and sea salt and prohibited the consumption of sugar and sweets.
As a result, he saved everyone in his hospital, while many other survivors perished from radiation sickness.
Source: Tatsuichiro Akuziki, M.D. Nagasaki 1945, London Quarter books, 1981. (Brown rice, miso, Sea vegetables, Salt)
In 1968 Canadian researchers reported that sea vegetables contained a polysaccharide substance that selectively bound radioactive strontium and helped eliminate it from the body. In laboratory experiments, sodium alginate prepared from kelp, kombu, and other brown seaweeds off the Atlantic and pacific coasts was introduced along with strontium and calcium into rats. The reduction of radioactive particles in bone uptake, measured in the femur, reached as high as 80%, with little interference with calcium absorption.
The evaluation of biological activity of different marine algae is important because of their practical significance in preventing absorption of radioactive products of atomic fission as well as in their use as possible natural decontaminators.
Source: Y. Tanaka et. Al. ” Studies on Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium”, Canadian Medical Association Journal 99: 169-75. (Sea Vegetables)
WHOLE GRAINS PROTECT IN FIVE WAYS
Whole grains help to protect us from the deleterious health effects of radiation exposure in five ways:
1) Grains are low on the food chain. Although they may have been exposed to pollution and radiation, they do not have the concentration of contaminants that is found in meat and large fish, which are at the top of the food chain.
2) Important with respect to radiation protection is the high fiber and phosphorous contents in grains. The binding ability of these substances helps the body to remove poisons.
3) The bulking factor of grains lessens the intestinal transit time and so hasten the elimination of all toxins.
4) Being neither very acid nor very alkaline, grains help us to maintain the middle-range pH that has been found to increase our resistance to radiation.
5) Whole grains provide vitamin B6, which is indispensable for the thymus. In addition, their calcium content guards against uptake of radioactive strontium, and their vitamin E and selenium prevent cellular damage caused by free radicals.
THE FOODS BETTER TO AVOID
1) Refined, genetic modified and processed foods
2) Fatty foods (meat, dairy products)
3) Simple sugars (white sugar), soft drinks
Source: Diet for the Atomic Age by Sara Shannon-Avery Publishing Group Inc., Wayne, New Jersey.
The products mentioned in this message are available in most of the health stores.